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Source: World Health Organization (WHO)This material has been condensed from information on the WHO Internet site. A link to this site can be found under 'Other Australian and international communicable diseases sites' on the CDI homepage.
ZambiaThe cholera outbreak which began early in the year has continued, and a total of 11,327 cases with 393 deaths has been reported up to 4 June. The majority of cases occurred in Lusaka district in the South-East region (Central province). Recently the situation has stabilised in most areas and the control measures which were implemented have been successful. However, new outbreaks have been reported in Chilubi and Samfya districts in Northern province where health workers are taking measures to control the situation.
BurundiFollowing notification of an increase in cholera cases at the main hospital, a team from Médecins sans frontières and WHO went to the area to investigate and to initiate control measures.
From 24 May to 5 June a total of 89 cases with 6 deaths had occurred. No cases have been reported among the refugees from the Democratic Republic of the Congo who passed through the area during that period. The cause of the outbreak was probably the early onset of the dry season and consequent drinking of water from the lake, as well as lack of preventative measures by the population.
A cumulative total of 587 cases had previously been reported in Burundi since the beginning of the year.
MadagascarThe cholera outbreak which began in March, is still continuing in both Mahajanga and Antananarivo Provinces. The majority of cases occurred in several districts of Mahajanga (3,365 cases 215 deaths) up to 15 June. A total of 642 cases and 3 deaths occurred in Antananarivo Province up to the same date.
HondurasA cholera outbreak has been reported in areas bordering Nicaragua and Guatemala. Thirty-two cases have occurred to date, 20 of which (not yet laboratory confirmed) occurred in La Mosquitia area. The health authorities of Honduras, Nicaragua and Guatemala are co-operating to control the disease and prevent further spread. Technical assistance is being provided by the WHO Regional Office for the Americas.
NicaraguaA total of 359 cases with 7 deaths has been reported up to 5 June. The most affected regions are: Region Autonoma Atlantico Norte (R.A.A.N.), Managua, Nueva Segovia and Jinotega.
AfghanistanA suspected cholera outbreak has been reported in the Central Region which began on 29 May. Three out of 4 samples tested have been laboratory confirmed. In the South-eastern Region (Ghazni) a suspected cholera outbreak has also been reported and an investigation team has been sent to verify the outbreak and to take samples.
Brunei DarussalamA cholera outbreak has been reported in Muara District by the health authorities. There have been 72 confirmed cases and 29 suspect cases up to 18 June. Thirty-two of the cases were in an outbreak at a school, most with date of onset on 3 June. No secondary cases have been detected. The source of the outbreak has not yet been identified and prevention and control measures are continuing.
Malaria in BurundiBetween January and May 1999, a total of 616,034 cases of malaria was reported by health centres. In January, all provinces were affected, and although only 75% of provinces were affected in May, there was a significant increase in some (especially Karusi, with 2.5 times more cases in May than in April).
A comparison of data for May 1998 and May 1999 has shown that in some provinces, cases have increased very sharply (e.g. Mutoyi, from 3,094 to 7,568; Rutoke, from 293 to 1,768). Mortality figures are not available for all provinces. In Mutoyi, a total of 17 deaths was registered between January and May; in Karusi, 34 deaths were recorded between 15 May and 15 June.
This article was published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 23, No 7, 8 July 1999.